Bangladesh at a Glance :
The Language Movement
The Language Movement of 1952 to recognize Bangla as a state language may be termed as the first step towards independence. Political and economic deprivation of the Bengalees prompted Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Father of the Nation, to put forward in 1966 his historic six points, the "Magna Carta" which in effect structured the foundation for East Pakistan's future independence.
The War of Liberation
In the 1970 elections, even though the Awami League emerged as the largest party in Pakistan Parliament, it was not allowed to form the government by the ruling military junta. In the backdrop of a non-cooperation movement launched against the military regime by Awami League.
Bangabandhu declared at a historic public meeting held at Ramna Race Course (renamed Suhrawardy Uddyan) on 7 March, 1971, attended by around 2 million people, "The struggle this tune is the struggle for freedom, the struggle this tune is the struggle for independence." It was a defacto declaration of independence.
Thus in a preplanned manner on 25th March 1971. The Pakistan army embarked on what may be termed as history's worst genocide. A military crackdown was ordered, and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib was arrested and taken away to West Pakistan. But just before he was arrested he sent out a call for the liberation war to begin. Known as the Declaration of (lie War of Independence, this hurriedly written historic document read as follows:
"Pak Army suddenly attacked EPR Base at Pilkhana, Rajarbagh Police Line and killing citizens. Street battles are going on in every street of Dacca. Chittagong. I appeal to the nations of the world for help. Our freedom fighters are gallantly fighting with the enemies to free the motherland. I appeal and order you all in the name of Almighty Allah to fight to the last drop of blood to liberate the country. Ask Police, EPR, Bengal Regiment and Ansar to stand by you and to fight. No compromise. Victory is ours. Drive out the enemies from the holy soil of motherland. Convey this message to all Awami League leaders, workers and other patriots and lovers of freedom. May Allah bless you. Joy Bangla".
After nine months of war, the Pakistani occupation forces surrendered in Dhaka on 16th December. 1971 after killing an estimated three million people. Due to the heroic resistance and supreme sacrifices of the valiant freedom fighters Bangladesh finally became an independent sovereign state.
Father of the Nation Bangahandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the founder- president of Bangladesh. He was subsequently assassinated on 15th August, 1975 by a group of conspirators.
Official Name: The People’s Republic of Bangladesh
State Religion: Islam but other main religions namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity are practiced in peace and harmony.
State Language: Bangla
National Anthem: The first ten lines of “Amar Sonar Bangla”. written by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore.
National Flag: Consists of a circle coloured red throughout its area, resting on a green rectangular background. The length to width ratio of the rectangle is 10:6 and the circle has a radius of one fifth of the length.
National Emblem: The national flower “Shapla” (nymphea-nouchali) resting on water, having on each side an ear of paddy and being surmounted by three connected leaves of jute with two stars on each side of the leaves.
Name of Currency: Taka (TK)
Notes:Taka 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 & 1
Coins: Taka 5, 2, 1 and Paisa 50, 25, 10, 5, 2 & 1
Geographical Location: Between 20°34′ and 26°38′ north latitude and between 88°01′ and 92°41′ east longitude.
Boundary: North: India
South: Bay of Bengal
East: India and Myanmar
Area: 56977 sq. miles or 147570 sq. km.
Population : 150 million
Territorial Water: 200 nautical miles.